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How Does Culture Impact Communication?



How Does Culture Impact Communication?


Culture impacts everything we do, from thinking to speaking to learning to driving. It determines the language we speak, influences the food we eat, the clothing we wear, and the beliefs and values we hold. Culture has been described as "the water we swim in." Until we have an experience that takes us out of that aquarium, we don't know that our way of thinking, living, or speaking is different from others.



How are cultures formed?


People form culture, a particular group of people (who) living in a specific place (where) at a particular point in time (when). Some of the key drivers that form cultures are geography (borders, climate, physical resources), demography (indigenous, immigrants), and history (war, peace, prosperity, poverty).


Our culture influences what we believe is true and false, right and wrong, giving us our sense of how the world works. Hofstede defined culture as "software of the mind" (1), and Ouchi & Johnson described it as "…how things are done around here.” (2)



Talking about Culture


Because culture is intangible (I often refer to it as “smoke and mirrors”), talking about it can be difficult. But if we want to communicate effectively with people from other cultures, talk about it we must.


Over the past seven decades, scholars and researchers in the field of intercultural communication have devised models that put words to this fuzzy concept of culture and how cultures differ. Edward T. Hall (3) and Geert Hofstede were two early pioneers. More recently, Erin Meyer (4) has introduced a model that utilizes the language of modern business to describe cultural differences in communication.


All the models rely on a bi-polar structure that juxtaposes two different cultural ways of being, referred to as "Cultural Dimensions." One dimension that has stood the test of time is “Task vs. Relationship.”


Models of Cultural Dimensions are used to:

  1. Foster Cultural Self-awareness: they help people understand that their behavior is culturally determined.

  2. Foster “Other-awareness”: they can be used to interpret the behavior of people who come from another culture.

  3. Provide a common vocabulary: they give people a set of common words to speak about the differences they encounter.

  4. Compare or “Map” cultures: By placing two or more cultures on the line between the poles, you can estimate how similar or different people’s behavior might be in various situations.



Cultures are never pure versions of one way of being or the other. On the contrary, all Cultures have aspects of both extremes. However, if we look carefully at the general tendencies of a culture, we can position them as being more toward one pole or the other.


Another critical understanding is that the absolute position on the line is not as important as the relative position. The value of knowing your placement on the line is where you are in relation to people from other cultures with whom you are interacting.



Culture and Communication


Language is an integral component of culture. How and why people communicate is also culture-specific.


In the U.S., we start learning to make simple presentations in front of the class from about the third grade. We learn how to structure information and stand in front of the room to deliver our content. When I was teaching in Switzerland, I discovered that this is not true in all cultures and that many people envy us because of this training. I once had a Hungarian student who never had to make a presentation in school until he defended his master's thesis. Standing in front of a room to make a presentation was a skill he had not learned.


All aspects of presenting are impacted by culture, from how someone introduces themselves to the way they end the presentation, how content is organized, or if it is organized. How much detail should you give? What kind of slides are acceptable? How long should a presentation be, and do you tell people the length at the beginning (or not)?


You might be a non-native English speaker who must present to a native English-speaking audience. Alternatively, you could be a native-English speaker presenting to an international audience. There are many factors to consider in both cases as you prepare your presentation.


In subsequent blog posts, we will explore these factors to aid you in making the most impactful presentation possible.



(1) Hofstede, G., Cultures, and Organizations: Software of the Mind, McGraw-Hill Europe, Berkshire, England, 1991.

(2) Ouchi, W.G. & Johnson, J.B., Types of Organizational Control and Their Relationship to Emotional Well Being. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.23. No.2. pp 293-317.

(3) Hall, E.T., The Silent Language., Double Day, NYC, NY, 1959.

(4) Meyer, E., The Culture Map: Decoding how people think, lead and get things done across cultures., Public Affairs, NYC, NY, 2014.

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